It is a pleasure to have the opportunity to engage with the work of Francis Beckwith, whose work I've admired for a long time. We often disagree, and I disagree with much of what he has written here, but I'm glad we are having this conversation. He writes that "if applied rigorously, the Lemon Test institutionalizes both a governmental preference for secularism as well as a hostility toward religion." He also writes, however, that the terms of the test "seem endlessly pliable." These claims are inconsistent.