For Catholics, the Second Vatican Council (1962–65) stands as the key event of the last 60 years. It renewed the Church's self-understanding. It reimagined her relations with the Jewish people, other Christians, and the world. It also acknowledged in a new and powerful way the importance of the lay vocation.
It did not, however, break radically with the past, notably regarding authority. In the person of the local bishop, stressed the council, "the Lord Jesus Christ . . . is present in the midst of the faithful." Every local bishop has the authority to teach, encourage, govern, and correct the faithful entrusted to him. Thus, as "father and pastor" of his people, he should be "an example of sanctity in charity, humility, and simplicity of life," with the duty to "mold his flock into one family" so that all "may live and act in the communion of charity."